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Tracktec Tracktec Home Technology Science Computing Security Info 10 July 2016 Computer coughs up passwords, encryption keys through its cooling fans By: Ramprasad R on 10.7.16 Here’s a security update to haunt your dreams, and to make the FBI’s quest for un-exploitable cryptographic backdoors look all the more absurd: a team of Israeli researchers has now shown that the sounds made by a computer’s fan can be analyzed to extract everything from usernames and passwords to full encryption keys. It’s not really a huge programming feat, as we’ll discuss below, but from a conceptual standpoint it shows how wily modern cyber attackers can be and why the weakest link in any security system still involves the human element. In hacking, there’s a term called “phreaking” that used to refer to phone hacking via automated touch-tone systems, but which today colloquially refers any kind of system investigation or manipulation that uses sound as its main mechanism of action. Phone phreakers used to make free long distance phone calls by playing the correct series of tones into a phone receiver but phreaks can listen to sounds just as easily as they can produce them, often with even greater effect. That’s because sound has the potential to get around one of the most powerful and widely used methods in high-level computer security: air-gapping, or the separation of a system from any externally connected network an attack might be able to use for entry. (The term pre-dates wireless internet, and a Wi-Fi-connected computer is not air-gapped, despite the literal gap of air around it.) So how do you hack your way into an air-gapped computer? Use something that moves easily through the air, and which all computers are creating to one extent or another: Sound. One favorite worry of paranoiacs is something called Van Eck Phreaking, in which you listen to the sound output of a device to derive something about what the device is doing; in extreme cases, it’s alleged that an attacker can recreate the image on the screen of a properly mic’ed up CRT monitor. Another, more recent phreaking victory showed that it is possible to break RSA encryption with a full copy of the encrypted message and an audio recording of the processor as it goes through the normal, authorized decryption process. Note that in order to do any of this, you have to get physically close enough to your target to put a microphone within listening range. If your target system is inside CIA Headquarters, or Google X, you’re almost certainly going to need an agent on the inside to make that happen and if you’ve got one of those available, you can probably use them to do a lot more than place microphones in places. On the other hand, once placed, this microphone’s security hole won’t be detectable in the system logs, since it’s not actually interacting with the system in any way, just hoovering up incidental leakage of information. This new fan-attack actually requires even more specialized access, since you have to not only get a mic close to the machine, but infect the machine with a fan-exploiting malware. The idea is that most security software actively looks for anything that might be unusual or harmful behavior, from sending out packets of data over the internet to making centrifuges spin up and down more quickly. Security researchers might have enough foresight to look at fan activity from a safety perspective, and make sure no malware turns them off and melts the computer or something like that, but will they be searching for data leaks in such an out of the way part of the machine? After this paper, the answer is: “You’d better hope so.” A diagram of the life-cycle of the Stuxnet virus. The team used two fan speeds to represent the 1s and 0s of their code (1,000 and 1,600 RPM, respectively,) and listened to the sequence of fan-whines to keep track. Their maximum “bandwidth” is about 1,200 bits an hour, or about 0.15 kilobytes. That might not sound like a lot, but 0.15KB of sensitive, identifying information can be crippling, especially if it’s something like a password that grants further access. You can fit a little over 150 alpha-numeric characters into that space that’s a whole lot of passwords to lose in a single hour. There is simply no way to make any system immune to infiltration. You can limit the points of vulnerability, then supplement those point with other measures that’s what air-gapping is, condensing the vulnerabilities down to physical access to the machine, then shoring that up with big locked metal doors, security cameras, and armed guards. But if Iran can’t keep its nuclear program safe, and the US can’t keep its energy infrastructure safe, and Angela Merkel can’t keep her cell phone safe how likely are the world’s law enforcement agencies to be able to ask a bunch of software companies to keep millions of diverse and security-ignorant customers safe, with one figurative hand tied behind their backs? On the other hand, this story also illustrates the laziness of the claim that the FBI can’t develop ways of hack these phones on their own, a reality that is equally distressing in its own way. The FBI has bragged that it’s getting better at such attacks “every day,” meaning that the only things protecting you from successful attacks against your phone are: the research resources available to the FBI, and the access to your phone that the FBI can rely on having, for instance by seizing it. Nobody should be campaigning to make digital security weaker, to any extent, for any reason as this story shows, our most sensitive information is already more than vulnerable enough as it is. extremetech "Wearable" for plants to let you converse with a chrysanthemum By: Ramprasad R on 10.7.16 The Phytl Signs device picks up the tiny electrical signals emitted by plants. Houseplants have never been known as great conversationalists, but it's possible we just can't hear what they're saying. Swiss company, Vivent SARL, is hoping to rectify that with its Phytl Signs device that picks up the tiny electrical signals emitted by plants and broadcasts them through a speaker. The ultimate goal is to translate what the plants are actually "saying." The system, which is currently the subject of a crowdfunding campaign, features two receptors – a stake that is inserted into the soil next to the plant, and a clip that gently connects to a leaf. These measure the voltage coming from the plant, which feeds into a signal processor. From there the plant-speak is output through a built-in speaker. A smartphone app can also receive raw data from a plant, allowing analysis of the signals using data analysis software. Unlike current plant monitors on the market that measure environmental metrics like soil moisture and sunlight, the Phytl Signs device is claimed to pick up on whether your plant is thriving or stressed, active or quiet, or besieged by pests. The plant responds immediately to a change in lighting or the cutting of a leaf with a spike in sound, which is an electronic howl akin to a theramin. But decoding what the audio output means is still being worked out by the company. To that end, the company encourages device owners to share their data with an online community of fellow users, allowing the company to crowdsource the data to help them decode and translate the plant signals so they can be understood. Ultimately, if and when the signals are translated, it would allow plant owners to provide the best growing conditions possible. The company also envisions using the devices for agriculture research, and on a commercial scale to monitor crops and potentially improve yields and minimize water use. It can be used on any plant as long as the leaf is wide enough for the clip to connect. The company has launched a Kickstarter campaign to produce its gadgets, improve its software and further study what the plant signals mean. The minimum pledge level for an Explorer kit is CHF129 (approx. US$130), with shipping slated for April, 2017 if everything goes as planned. Source: Phytl Signs, gizmag Google’s ‘FASTER’ undersea cable goes online with 60 Tbps of bandwidth By: Ramprasad R on 10.7.16 You probably have a wireless network at home, but for some applications a wired connection is still more reliable. It’s the same in internet backbone communications satellites help keep the world in sync, but the best connections across the globe rely upon undersea fiber optic cables. A new undersea cable constructed with Google’s backing has just gone online linking the US west coast with Japan. The cable, which has the fitting name “FASTER,” can transmit 60 terabytes of data per second, more than any other active undersea cable. It’s about 10 million times faster than your home broadband connection on a good day. The new cable will benefit users near one end or the other when they need to ping a server on the other end. It doesn’t boost their own bandwidth, but it could allow them to take fuller advantage of it. FASTER also includes an additional connection from Japan to Taiwan, which has 20 Tbps of bandwidth and is owned completely by Google. Google joined this ambitious construction project back in 2014 when it partnered with five other companies: NEC, China Mobile, China Telecom, Global Transit, and KDDI. The project has cost about $300 million to complete, but it will offer huge speed increases for data transmission between Asia and North America. Google’s participation in the project guarantees it 10 Tbps of dedicated bandwidth on the FASTER cable. Google is also planning to launch its Google Cloud Platform East Asia in Tokyo this year. The dedicated bandwidth from FASTER will result in faster transfers and lower latency for its customers. FASTER stretches some 9,00 kilometers (5,592 miles) across the ocean. The US end is in Bandon, Oregon, and the Japanese end plugs into Shima and Chikura. The US cable location places it very near to Google’s data center in The Dalles. FASTER uses six fiber pairs to push all that bandwidth using 100 different wavelengths of light. Every 60 kilometers, there’s a repeater that re-energizes the data to ensure no data is lost along the way, according to Google’s senior vice president of technical infrastructure Urs H?lzle. This cable might be the speed king right now, but that won’t be the case for long. Earlier this year, Microsoft and Facebook announced they would be laying a cable from the US to southern Europe with a capacity of 160 Tbps across eight cable pairs. I guess Google will just have to limp along with FASTER. extremetech 12 April 2016 Experimental battery uses bacteria to charge and recharge By: Ramprasad R on 12.4.16 Rechargeable battery technology has been improving incrementally in recent years, but we’re still working with the same heavy, dangerous, expensive materials. A group of researchers from The Netherlands has devised a new biological battery that charges and discharges with the aid of bacteria. They’ve tested this system on the small scale and managed 15 charge cycles in a row. This “bioelectrochemical” battery consists of two parts. There’s a microbial electrical synthesis (MES) module that takes electrons and uses them to generate acetate. This is a metal salt that can be used to store electrical charge. The other side of the battery is a microbial fuel cell (utilizing various anaerobic bacteria) that processes that acetate via reduction/oxidation, resulting in the release of electrons. These are then fed into a circuit to harvest the power that was stored in the first step. More power can be added to the MES system to recharge, and the whole process starts over again. The team tested this design by feeding power in over the course of 16 hours. It then provided power over the course of 8 hours. Does that sound like it might mesh well with any particular type of technology? Yep, it’s a great match for solar power, and indeed that’s the application the researchers have in mind. In areas that have lots of sunlight, there’s an almost unlimited supply of power during the day, but you have to store that power for use at night. The bacterial battery described in the paper might be ideal for storing energy from solar power, but first some improvements need to be made. For one, the efficiency isn’t what we’d expect from a modern lithium-polymer battery. The team reports roughly 30-40% cycle efficiency, compared with upward of 80% in the best batteries we have now. The bacterial batteries would also need a bit more care than a lithium-ion system. If the bacteria inside were to die, the battery would stop working. Despite these shortcomings, the study authors believe that this is an important first step. The study includes data from 15 charge cycles of the battery, and it maintained very consistent performance throughout. The self-renewing nature of bacterial colonies might mean this approach has better longevity than lithium-ion, which only works for a few hundred cycles. With additional research, bioelectrochemical batteries may have similar capacity and efficiency compared with conventional ones, but with much lower costs and fewer volatile chemicals. Like so many other proposed battery technologies, this one is a few years off. Source: extremetech Ultrasound makes for palm-based computer displays you can feel By: Ramprasad R on 12.4.16 Researchers at the University of Sussex are working to augment palm-based displays by adding tactile sensations to the mix. From buzzing phones to quivering console controllers, haptic feedback has become indispensable in modern computing, and developers are already wondering how it will be felt in systems of the future. Sending ultrasound waves through the back of the hand to deliver tactile sensations to the front might sound a little far-fetched, but by achieving just that UK scientists claim to have cleared the way for computers that use our palms as advanced interactive displays. For years now scientists have been chipping away at the idea of using human skin as a computer display. It sounds unlikely, but with technology becoming more miniaturized, the uptake in wearable devices and more time spent gazing into computer screens, in some ways it seems natural that we use our most readily available surfaces as gateways to the digital realm. While we're not expecting the very next Fitbit to project your calories burned onto your forearm, some promising prototypes have emerged in this area. The Skinput display system from 2010 used a bio-acoustic sensing array to translate finger taps on the palm into input commands, while the Cicret wristband concept from 2014 envisioned beaming an Android interface onto the arm and used proximity sensors to follow finger movements. Researchers at the University of Sussex are working to improve palm-based displays by adding tactile sensations to the mix. Importantly, they are aiming to do so without using vibrations or pins, approaches they say have plagued previous efforts as they require contact with the palm and therefore disrupt the display. So they are looking to sneak in the back door. Their SkinHaptics system relies on an array of ultrasound transmitters that when applied to the back of the hand, send sensations to the palm, which can therefore be left exposed to display the screen. The team says it was able to achieve this through something it calls time-reversal processing. As the ultrasound waves enter through the back of the hand they begin as broad pulses that actually become more targeted as they move through to the other side, landing at a specific point on the palm. The researchers liken it to water ripples working in reverse. "Wearables are already big business and will only get bigger," says Professor Sriram Subramanian, who led the research. "But as we wear technology more, it gets smaller and we look at it less, and therefore multisensory capabilities become much more important. If you imagine you are on your bike and want to change the volume control on your smartwatch, the interaction space on the watch is very small. So companies are looking at how to extend this space to the hand of the user. What we offer people is the ability to feel their actions when they are interacting with the hand." You can see a prototype of the SkinHaptics system demonstrated in the video below. Source: University of Sussex, gizmag 24 March 2016 In the future, we might clean our clothes using nothing but light By: Ramprasad R on 24.3.16 Red indicates the coverage of silver nanoparticles in a fabric in this image that's been magnified 200 times (Credit: RMIT University). Even though we no longer have to beat our clothes on rocks to get them clean, laundry is still a pretty tedious chore. If researchers at Australia's Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology (RMIT) have their way though, the amount of time we spend measuring capfuls of liquid, scraping out the lint filter and refolding our duds may soon get slashed thanks to a new coating that cleans fabrics whenever they're exposed to light. Imagine being able to simply hang your shirt in a lit closet to get it clean. Or taking a walk on a sunny day and arriving home with a perfectly clean shirt. Both things might be possible with RMIT's new technology that grows copper and silver-based nanostructures on fabrics. When the tiny metallic constructs are exposed to light either from a manmade or natural source they create "hot electrons" that in turn release energy bursts that dissolve organic matter. So that grass stain you got from playing football would be blasted away, but the ink from changing the cartridges in your printer might not. To create the self-cleaning fabric, the MIT team dipped the cloth into various solutions which caused the nanostructures to grow on the textile. It took about 30 minutes for the nanostructures to form. After that, they deliberately stained the fabric and witnessed the cleaning action take place in as little as six minutes. The team says the technique is cheap and efficient and can easily be scaled up to an industrial scale, and it is these attributes that give it advantages over similar self-cleaning fabric technologies. This image of the cotton coated with silver nanoparticles is magnified 150,000 times Although you won't be seeing self-cleaning clothes hitting the rack in your local shops just yet, RMIT researcher Dr Rajesh Ramanathan said that the next step for he and his team is to test the fabrics with staining agents relevant to consumers, like tomato sauce or wine. "There's more work to do to before we can start throwing out our washing machines, but this advance lays a strong foundation for the future development of fully self-cleaning textiles," he said. Source: RMIT University 20 March 2016 Methane explosion craters off Norwegian coast linked to fringe Bermuda Triangle theory By: Ramprasad R on 20.3.16 Scientists at the Arctic University of Norway have stirred things up this week by announcing that they’ve found giant underwater craters off their coast, which they believe were formed by exploding natural gas buried in the seafloor. This is not itself controversial. What’s controversial is that the scientists suggested the phenomenon could explain the Bermuda Triangle. The researchers described craters in the Barents Sea that are up to half a mile wide and 150 feet deep. The craters appear to have been caused by the explosive release of methane hydrate, also known as methane clathrate or natural gas, that had been deposited long ago in the sediment below. The Bermuda Triangle. Image: Wikipedia We don’t know yet whether these methane explosions even happen in the Bermuda Triangle region. If they did, though, the scientists suggest that the violent disturbances to the water and atmosphere could buffet a ship or a plane, capsizing it or causing some other sudden calamity. While the risk to passing ships has yet to be conclusively established, though, gas hydrates are very real. We used to think methane hydrates were only found on ice planets, but more recent exploration and research have determined that we do find these crystalline deposits of methane in Earth’s ocean floors. Methane - four hydrogen atoms connected to a single carbon atom is one of the simplest organic compounds Methane is a colorless, odorless gas, and it’s also nonpolar normally, it behaves like oil in water, stubbornly refusing to mix or blend. But a great deal of Earth’s methane was produced by the long-ago decomposition of vast, ancient beds of plankton buried in the seafloor under the crushing pressures of the deep ocean. The sheer pressure means that molecules of methane are physically forced to mingle with water molecules hence the name, hydrate. The resultant substance is kept stable in a solid, even crystalline form by the weight of all that water. This is also why we don’t find methane clathrates in shallow seas; the pressures there aren’t enough to keep the methane solid. But with the right kind of disturbance, parts of the deep-ocean crystalline hydrate deposits can break off and even explode violently as they transition from solid to gas. Oil workers call these gas explosions “burps of death.” There have been a number of conspiracy theories about the Bermuda Triangle, some better substantiated than others, but many experts remain unconvinced the zone even exists as an anomaly. It’s a heavily trafficked region and has been for a long time. Comparing the data shows that ships and planes disappear from the Bermuda Triangle at about the same frequency as they disappear from anywhere else, raising questions about whether the Triangle is nothing more than a collective case of confirmation bias. And the waters might not even be deep enough for the methane hydrate deposits to form in the first place. If the scientists are right, though, as climate change warms the oceans (helped along by, poetically, methane as a potent greenhouse gas), more and more of these tumultuous releases of methane will occur, making them more easily studied. (Top Image credit: NOAA/Hurricane Joaquin, 2015) Source: Extremetech 12 February 2016 World record Internet data transfer rate almost 50,000 times faster than broadband By: Ramprasad R on 12.2.16 Using advanced digital signal processing techniques, researchers have created an optical data transmission system able to transfer information at a rate of 1.125 terabytes per second (Credit: Shutterstock) At a blistering 1.125 terabytes per second, a new optical communication system developed by University College London (UCL) researchers has created a new record for the fastest ever data transfer rate for digital information. At the quoted rate, say the researchers, the entire HD series of the TV show Game of Thrones could be downloaded in less than one second. To help achieve these incredibly fast transfer rates, the researchers took recent developments from the realm of information theory in regard to the maximum amount of information that can be transmitted being limited by the finite signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), and applied advanced digital signal processing techniques to optimize the SNR and maximize data throughput. In other words, the team determined the most efficient way to encode data in optical signals, taking into account the limitations of the transmitter and receiver. They then cleverly used noise reduction techniques normally found in wireless communications and applied them to optical transmission. In this way, the team was able to ensure that the transmitted signals were able to be minimally effected by distortions in the system electronics. "While current state-of-the-art commercial optical transmission systems are capable of receiving single channel data rates of up to 100 gigabits per second, we are working with sophisticated equipment in our lab to design the next generation core networking and communications systems that can handle data signals at rates in excess of 1 terabit per second," said Lead researcher, Dr Robert Maher, of UCL Electronic & Electrical Engineering. "For comparison this is almost 50,000 times greater than the average speed of a UK broadband connection of 24 megabits per second, which is the current speed defining "superfast" broadband." Building on previous work, where the team transmitted optical signals over a world-record 5,890 km (3,660 mi) error-free, the new system employs a total of fifteen separate data transmission channels, with each carrying an encoded optical signal of different wavelengths. Modulated using the 256QAM format normally employed in cable modems, the 15 signals were combined and then sent to a single optical receiver for detection. In this way, by arraying the transmission channels, the researchers created a "super-channel" that they believe may form the basis for future high-capacity communication systems. "Using high-bandwidth super-receivers enables us to receive an entire super-channel in one go," said Dr Maher. "Super-channels are becoming increasingly important for core optical communications systems, which transfer bulk data flows between large cities, countries or even continents. However, using a single receiver varies the levels of performance of each optical sub-channel so we had to finely optimize both the modulation format and code rate for each optical channel individually to maximize the net information data rate. This ultimately resulted in us achieving the greatest information rate ever recorded using a single receiver." Though initial research has been conducted with the transmitter feeding directly to the receiver in order to realize the maximum data transfer rate, the team now intends to run the system with long cable lengths. In this way, performance tests will be conducted to measure the achievable data rates over long distances where distortion is introduced by the optical cables themselves. The results of this research were recently published in the Nature journal Scientific Reports. Source: University College London, gizmag 11 February 2016 Mechanical chameleon blends with color backgrounds By: Ramprasad R on 11.2.16 Mechanical Chameleon through Dynamic Real-Time Plasmonic Tuning. Credit: ACS Nano (2016). DOI: 10.1021/acsnano.5b07472 Name one intense research area and you will not go wrong in choosing camouflage. ACS Nano has published "Mechanical Chameleon through Dynamic Real-Time Plasmonic Tuning." The paper will interest those who recognize the challenges ahead in improving ways of hiding and ways of blending in with the environment. The authors are from China and Georgia Institute of Technology (Atlanta, Georgia). As they said in their paper, "Optical invisibility represents one of the greatest challenges in military and biomimetic research." From the earlier days of pattern painting and on toward approaches for the invisibility cloak, explorations continue. These researchers are on a path which permits real-time light manipulation readily match-able to the color setting in an environment. A video on their work shows the chameleon rolling past three colors and changing its color accordingly. The "chameleon" actually is a 3D-printed model covered in plasmonic displays. The authors discussed what they had fabricated: "a biomimetic mechanical chameleon and an active matrix display with dynamic color rendering covering almost the entire visible region." Adam Westlake in SlashGear found their work impressive enough. "The future of color-changing body armor may be here," he said, in the form of this chameleon-shaped robot. Mechanical Chameleon through Dynamic Real-Time Plasmonic Tuning. Credit: ACS Nano (2016). DOI: 10.1021/acsnano.5b07472 They summarized what they accomplished, saying "we have achieved reversible full-color plasmonic cells/display by electrochemically controlling the structure of a Au/Ag core–shell nanodome array and successfully integrated these cells onto a mechanical chameleon, which can blend automatically with colored backgrounds." Westlake said the plasmonic displays can produce colors and rapidly change between them by detecting the background with light sensors and he wrote about their approach: Displays are made from small sheets of glass with a grid of holes measuring 50 nanometers wide. The team coated the sheets in gold, creating small domes in each hole, followed by another layer electrolyte gel with silver ions. "Plasmons, or ripples of electrons, are said to be created when light hits the gold domes, which in turn determines its properties of reflection and absorption," wrote Westlake. "Different colors are produced when an electric field is connected, altering how many silver ions stick to the gold. Sensors were then added that can detect the light and color of the surroundings, and then adjust the electric field to change colors as needed." The authors said their mechanical chameleon can perform against backgrounds with only three primary colors (red, green, and blue). At the same time, though, they said their technology can also interface with a complex environment and provide a new approach for artificial active camouflage. "This application is readily approachable by using more technically advanced autonomous systems, which can be addressed by using a highly integrated machine vision system that can capture and simulate the entire color patterns of the environment and then drive the color-changing process in individual cells, fully merging the mechanical chameleon with the surroundings." More information: Guoping Wang et al. Mechanical Chameleon through Dynamic Real-Time Plasmonic Tuning, ACS Nano (2016). DOI: 10.1021/acsnano.5b07472 Abstract The development of camouflage methods, often through a general resemblance to the background, has recently become a subject of intense research. However, an artificial, active camouflage that provides fast response to color change in the full-visible range for rapid background matching remains a daunting challenge. To this end, we report a method, based on the combination of bimetallic nanodot arrays and electrochemical bias, to allow for plasmonic modulation. Importantly, our approach permits real-time light manipulation readily matchable to the color setting in a given environment. We utilize this capability to fabricate a biomimetic mechanical chameleon and an active matrix display with dynamic color rendering covering almost the entire visible region. source: Tech Xplore The wistful sigh is really a survival mechanism By: Ramprasad R on 11.2.16 A fluorescent-green marker on each side of the brain stem illuminates the two networks of 200 neurons that control the sighing reflex (Credit: Krasnow lab/Stanford) A sigh may do more for your health than provide emotional relief. Researchers in California claim to have identified the source of the sigh in the brain, which they say is a life-sustaining reflex for healthy lung functioning. Humans sigh around 12 times per hour to reinflate the half-billion or so tiny, balloon-like sacs in the lungs called alveoli, which are vital in regulating the flow of oxygen and carbon dioxide. A sigh is mostly an involuntary deep breath, or a regular breath with another added on top before an exhale. According to the study conducted by researchers from UCLA and Stanford University, sighs are a response to the lungs' signal to inflate the alveoli, and originate from two tiny clusters of 200 neurons in the brain stem – the area also responsible for autonomic functions such as heart rate, breathing and sleeping. The researchers believe the sigh has the fewest number of neurons linked to any basic human behavior. The findings also provide insights into mechanisms that may be behind other complex behaviors. Mark Krasnow, one of the study's authors and a biochemist at Stanford University School of Medicine, said the brain's breathing center controls the rate of breath, as well as the type of breath taken. "It's made up of small numbers of different kinds of neurons," he said. "Each functions like a button that turns on a different type of breath. One button programs regular breaths, another sighs, and the others could be for yawns, sniffs, coughs and maybe even laughs and cries." Using laboratory mice, which sigh up to 40 times per hour, the researchers looked at 19,000 patterns found in mice brain cells with possible links to genetic activity. From this they found 200 neurons in the brain stem that produce and release one of two neuropeptides, which facilitate communication between brain cells. While the researchers were unclear on which brain cells the neurons were talking to or why, they knew the strain of peptides was also found in humans and very active in the area of the brain involved with sighing. By blocking one of the peptides in the mice, their rate of sighing was reduced by half, and shut down completely when blocking both peptides. "These molecular pathways are critical regulators of sighing, and define the core of a sigh-control circuit," said Krasnow. "It may now be possible to find drugs that target these pathways to control sighing." Without sighing, our lungs would eventually fail. Early breathing devices did not provide regular deep breaths to patients, who sometimes died as a result. Today's ventilators compensate for sighs by delivering a large volume of air. The study was published in the online edition of the journal Nature. Source: UCLA Health, gizmag Older Posts Home Subscribe to: Posts (Atom) Get every new post delivered to your Inbox. Search Tracktec Search Lets Be Friends Follow @vrramprasad Tracktec Newsletter Find us on Facebook Popular Posts How To Run Android Apps On Windows Using Windroy? 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Name Server:
Name Server:
Name Server:
Name Server:
Name Server:
Name Server:
Name Server: